There are two typically accepted bacterium species of Salmonella; Salmonella Enterica and Salmonella Bongori.
Of the former, Salmonella Typhimurium is just one known bacteria of over 2,500 types in the Salmonella Enterica species.
This type of bacteria can cause infections in both animals and humans though it is usually associated with animal productions and animals that are eaten.
One of the most common methods of the infection being transferred to humans is via raw and/or undercooked meat and eggs which are already infected with the bacteria.
In this article, we will look at everything that you need to know about Salmonella Typhimurium including the symptoms it can cause, why it is so prevalent, and some notable facts.
What Salmonella Typhimurium Can Cause
Thankfully, any human which is infected with Salmonella Typhimurium rarely requires to be hospitalized or even needs a dose of antibiotics.
Unless the individual cannot fight off the infection due to an underlying health condition, they should be able to deal with the symptoms of the bacteria without antibiotics.
The condition has a range of symptoms that stem from gastroenteritis which leads to diarrhoea, fever, vomiting, and abdominal cramps.
These symptoms can last up to a week or maybe longer though anyone suffering from it should be drinking plenty of fluids.
Why Salmonella Typhimurium Can Be Prevalent
As the number one cause of food poisoning throughout Western countries, Salmonella Typhimurium is known to cause around a million cases just in the United States every year.
This is largely due to the bacteria having an adaptive pathogen that can invade host organisms and then go through different environments in that host.
While food preparation should be under strict control, this can be one area where improvement would be required to limit the cases of the bacteria occuring.
- Contamination from Salmonella Typhimurium mainly originates from two sources which are; food exposed to infected fecal matter during food storage, such as from mice and rice or from food production, and food derived from diseased hogs, cattle, and poultry.
- Infection typically occurs after the ingestion of food or water that is infected with the bacteria though it can also be passed on fingers or other objects.
- The group of serotypes that Salmonella Typhimurium belongs to also includes Salmonella Enteritidis.
- Just one complete, fully-formed genome sequence of the bacteria is quite revealing. A single sequence has shown a chromosome at over 4,800 kilobases long. The virulence plasmid alone reaches 93 kilobases.
- The bacteria has been trialled in order to investigate the delivery of DNA towards antigen-presenting cells to eventually produce some cancer vaccines.
- Some studies have indicated that the bacteria can begin an immune-effective response due to the DNA which contains numerous eukaryotic expression vectors.
- When its bacterial cells enter the epithelial cells that line the intestines, during the process they cause host cell ruffling which can temporarily damage the microvilli found on the surface of the cell.
- Salmonella Typhimurium can secrete tiny signaling molecules known as autoinducers.
- Salmonella Typhimurium is a pathogenic Gram-negative bacterium that is typically found in the intestinal lumen.
- The toxicity of the bacteria is largely due to an outer membrane that largely consists of lipopolysaccharides that look after the bacteria from the wider environment.
Though most individuals who are infected with Salmonella Typhimurium do not require a course of antibiotics, the infection can run from four to seven days or even longer.
The bacteria causes the condition of gastroenteritis which affects humans and can cause a whole range of symptoms.
However, the bacteria is also being used to develop a vaccine for typhoid and to try to produce a cancer vaccine.
Frequently Asked Questions
How Is A Salmonella Infection Diagnosed?
A Salmonella infection is typically diagnozed with a laboratory test. This test can detect the infection in bodily tissue, fluids, or an individual’s stool (fecal matter).
How Is A Salmonella Infection Typically Treated?
Anyone who is infected by Salmonella may require antibiotic treatment if they suffer from severe illness or have a weakened immune system.
Any adult over the age of 50 who has an underlying medical condition such as heart disease may also require antibiotics, as would adults over the age of 65 and infants younger than 12 months.
However, a lot of people recover from a Salmonella infection without needing antibiotics and are advised to drink plenty of fluids to combat diarrhea.
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